mysqltuner.pl

Use the following script to analyze MySQL database for tuning purposes.

#!/usr/bin/perl -w
# mysqltuner.pl - Version 1.0.0
# High Performance MySQL Tuning Script
# Copyright (C) 2006-2008 Major Hayden - major@mhtx.net
#
# For the latest updates, please visit http://mysqltuner.com/
# Subversion repository available at http://tools.assembla.com/svn/mysqltuner/
#
# This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
# the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
# (at your option) any later version.
#
# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
# GNU General Public License for more details.
#
# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
# along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
#
# This project would not be possible without help from:
#   Matthew Montgomery     Paul Kehrer
#   Dave Burgess           Jonathan Hinds
#   Mike Jackson           Nils Breunese
#   Shawn Ashlee           Luuk Vosslamber
#   Ville Skytta           Trent Hornibrook
#   Jason Gill             Mark Imbriaco
#   Greg Eden              Aubin Galinotti
#   Giovanni Bechis        Bill Bradford
#   Ryan Novosielski       Michael Scheidell
#   Blair Christensen      Hans du Plooy
#   Victor Trac            Everett Barnes
#
# Inspired by Matthew Montgomery's tuning-primer.sh script:

use strict;
use warnings;
use diagnostics;
use Getopt::Long;

# Set up a few variables for use in the script
my $tunerversion = "1.0.0";
my (@adjvars, @generalrec);

# Set defaults
my %opt = (
        "nobad" => 0,
        "nogood" => 0,
        "noinfo" => 0,
        "nocolor" => 0,
        "forcemem" => 0,
        "forceswap" => 0,
        "host" => 0,
        "socket" => 0,
        "port" => 0,
        "user" => 0,
        "pass" => 0,
        "skipsize" => 0,
        "checkversion" => 0,
    );
   
# Gather the options from the command line
GetOptions(\%opt,
        'nobad',
        'nogood',
        'noinfo',
        'nocolor',
        'forcemem=i',
        'forceswap=i',
        'host=s',
        'socket=s',
        'port=i',
        'user=s',
        'pass=s',
        'skipsize',
        'checkversion',
        'help',
    );

if (defined $opt{'help'} && $opt{'help'} == 1) { usage(); }

sub usage {
    # Shown with --help option passed
    print "\n".
        "   MySQLTuner $tunerversion - MySQL High Performance Tuning Script\n".
        "   Bug reports, feature requests, and downloads at http://mysqltuner.com/\n".
        "   Maintained by Major Hayden (major\@mhtx.net) - Licensed under GPL\n".
        "\n".
        "   Important Usage Guidelines:\n".
        "      To run the script with the default options, run the script without arguments\n".
        "      Allow MySQL server to run for at least 24-48 hours before trusting suggestions\n".
        "      Some routines may require root level privileges (script will provide warnings)\n".
        "      You must provide the remote server's total memory when connecting to other servers\n".
        "\n".
        "   Connection and Authentication\n".
        "      --host <hostname>    Connect to a remote host to perform tests (default: localhost)\n".
        "      --socket <socket>    Use a different socket for a local connection\n".
        "      --port <port>        Port to use for connection (default: 3306)\n".
        "      --user <username>    Username to use for authentication\n".
        "      --pass <password>    Password to use for authentication\n".
        "\n".
        "   Performance and Reporting Options\n".
        "      --skipsize           Don't enumerate tables and their types/sizes (default: on)\n".
        "                             (Recommended for servers with many tables)\n".
        "      --checkversion       Check for updates to MySQLTuner (default: don't check)\n".
        "      --forcemem <size>    Amount of RAM installed in megabytes\n".
        "      --forceswap <size>   Amount of swap memory configured in megabytes\n".
        "\n".
        "   Output Options:\n".
        "      --nogood             Remove OK responses\n".
        "      --nobad              Remove negative/suggestion responses\n".
        "      --noinfo             Remove informational responses\n".
        "      --nocolor            Don't print output in color\n".
        "\n";
    exit;
}

# Setting up the colors for the print styles
my $good = ($opt{nocolor} == 0)? "[\e[00;32mOK\e[00m]" : "[OK]" ;
my $bad = ($opt{nocolor} == 0)? "[\e[00;31m!!\e[00m]" : "[!!]" ;
my $info = ($opt{nocolor} == 0)? "[\e[00;34m--\e[00m]" : "[--]" ;

# Functions that handle the print styles
sub goodprint { print $good." ".$_[0] unless ($opt{nogood} == 1); }
sub infoprint { print $info." ".$_[0] unless ($opt{noinfo} == 1); }
sub badprint { print $bad." ".$_[0] unless ($opt{nobad} == 1); }
sub redwrap { return ($opt{nocolor} == 0)? "\e[00;31m".$_[0]."\e[00m" : $_[0] ; }
sub greenwrap { return ($opt{nocolor} == 0)? "\e[00;32m".$_[0]."\e[00m" : $_[0] ; }

# Calculates the parameter passed in bytes, and then rounds it to one decimal place
sub hr_bytes {
    my $num = shift;
    if ($num >= (1024**3)) { #GB
        return sprintf("%.1f",($num/(1024**3)))."G";
    } elsif ($num >= (1024**2)) { #MB
        return sprintf("%.1f",($num/(1024**2)))."M";
    } elsif ($num >= 1024) { #KB
        return sprintf("%.1f",($num/1024))."K";
    } else {
        return $num."B";
    }
}

# Calculates the parameter passed in bytes, and then rounds it to the nearest integer
sub hr_bytes_rnd {
    my $num = shift;
    if ($num >= (1024**3)) { #GB
        return int(($num/(1024**3)))."G";
    } elsif ($num >= (1024**2)) { #MB
        return int(($num/(1024**2)))."M";
    } elsif ($num >= 1024) { #KB
        return int(($num/1024))."K";
    } else {
        return $num."B";
    }
}

# Calculates the parameter passed to the nearest power of 1000, then rounds it to the nearest integer
sub hr_num {
    my $num = shift;
    if ($num >= (1000**3)) { # Billions
        return int(($num/(1000**3)))."B";
    } elsif ($num >= (1000**2)) { # Millions
        return int(($num/(1000**2)))."M";
    } elsif ($num >= 1000) { # Thousands
        return int(($num/1000))."K";
    } else {
        return $num;
    }
}

# Calculates uptime to display in a more attractive form
sub pretty_uptime {
    my $uptime = shift;
    my $seconds = $uptime % 60;
    my $minutes = int(($uptime % 3600) / 60);
    my $hours = int(($uptime % 86400) / (3600));
    my $days = int($uptime / (86400));
    my $uptimestring;
    if ($days > 0) {
        $uptimestring = "${days}d ${hours}h ${minutes}m ${seconds}s";
    } elsif ($hours > 0) {
        $uptimestring = "${hours}h ${minutes}m ${seconds}s";
    } elsif ($minutes > 0) {
        $uptimestring = "${minutes}m ${seconds}s";
    } else {
        $uptimestring = "${seconds}s";
    }
    return $uptimestring;
}

# Retrieves the memory installed on this machine
my ($physical_memory,$swap_memory,$duflags);
sub os_setup {
    sub memerror {
        badprint "Unable to determine total memory/swap; use '--forcemem' and '--forceswap'\n";
        exit;
    }
    my $os = `uname`;
    $duflags = ($os =~ /Linux/) ? '-b' : '';
    if ($opt{'forcemem'} > 0) {
        $physical_memory = $opt{'forcemem'} * 1048576;
        infoprint "Assuming $opt{'forcemem'} MB of physical memory\n";
        if ($opt{'forceswap'} > 0) {
            $swap_memory = $opt{'forceswap'} * 1048576;
            infoprint "Assuming $opt{'forceswap'} MB of swap space\n";
        } else {
            $swap_memory = 0;
            badprint "Assuming 0 MB of swap space (use --forceswap to specify)\n";
        }
    } else {
        if ($os =~ /Linux/) {
            $physical_memory = `free -b | grep Mem | awk '{print \$2}'` or memerror;
            $swap_memory = `free -b | grep Swap | awk '{print \$2}'` or memerror;
        } elsif ($os =~ /Darwin/) {
            $physical_memory = `sysctl -n hw.memsize` or memerror;
            $swap_memory = `sysctl -n vm.swapusage | awk '{print \$3}' | sed 's/\..*\$//'` or memerror;
        } elsif ($os =~ /NetBSD|OpenBSD/) {
            $physical_memory = `sysctl -n hw.physmem` or memerror;
            if ($physical_memory < 0) {
                $physical_memory = `sysctl -n hw.physmem64` or memerror;
            }
            $swap_memory = `swapctl -l | grep '^/' | awk '{ s+= \$2 } END { print s }'` or memerror;
        } elsif ($os =~ /BSD/) {
            $physical_memory = `sysctl -n hw.realmem`;
            $swap_memory = `swapinfo | grep '^/' | awk '{ s+= \$2 } END { print s }'`;
        } elsif ($os =~ /SunOS/) {
            $physical_memory = `/usr/sbin/prtconf | grep Memory | awk '{print \$3}'` or memerror;
            chomp($physical_memory);
            $physical_memory = $physical_memory*1024*1024;
        }
    }
    chomp($physical_memory);
}

# Checks to see if a MySQL login is possible
my ($mysqllogin,$doremote,$remotestring);
sub mysql_setup {
    $doremote = 0;
    $remotestring = '';
    my $command = `which mysqladmin`;
    chomp($command);
    if (! -e $command) {
        badprint "Unable to find mysqladmin in your \$PATH.  Is MySQL installed?\n";
        exit;
    }
    # Are we being asked to connect via a socket?
    if ($opt{socket} ne 0) {
        $remotestring = " -S $opt{socket}";
    }
    # Are we being asked to connect to a remote server?
    if ($opt{host} ne 0) {
        chomp($opt{host});
        $opt{port} = ($opt{port} eq 0)? 3306 : $opt{port} ;
        # If we're doing a remote connection, but forcemem wasn't specified, we need to exit
        if ($opt{'forcemem'} eq 0) {
            badprint "The --forcemem option is required for remote connections\n";
            exit;
        }
        infoprint "Performing tests on $opt{host}:$opt{port}\n";
        $remotestring = " -h $opt{host} -P $opt{port}";
        $doremote = 1;
    }
    # Did we already get a username and password passed on the command line?
    if ($opt{user} ne 0 and $opt{pass} ne 0) {
        $mysqllogin = "-u $opt{user} -p'$opt{pass}'".$remotestring;
        my $loginstatus = `mysqladmin ping $mysqllogin 2>&1`;
        if ($loginstatus =~ /mysqld is alive/) {
            goodprint "Logged in using credentials passed on the command line\n";
            return 1;
        } else {
            badprint "Attempted to use login credentials, but they were invalid\n";
            exit 0;
        }
    }
    if ( -r "/etc/psa/.psa.shadow" and $doremote == 0 ) {
        # It's a Plesk box, use the available credentials
        $mysqllogin = "-u admin -p`cat /etc/psa/.psa.shadow`";
        my $loginstatus = `mysqladmin ping $mysqllogin 2>&1`;
        unless ($loginstatus =~ /mysqld is alive/) {
            badprint "Attempted to use login credentials from Plesk, but they failed.\n";
            exit 0;
        }
    } else {
        # It's not Plesk, we should try a login
        my $loginstatus = `mysqladmin $remotestring ping 2>&1`;
        if ($loginstatus =~ /mysqld is alive/) {
            # Login went just fine
            $mysqllogin = " $remotestring ";
            # Did this go well because of a .my.cnf file or is there no password set?
            my $userpath = `ls -d ~ 2>/dev/null`;
            if (length($userpath) > 0) {
                chomp($userpath);
            }
            unless ( -e "${userpath}/.my.cnf" ) {
                badprint "Successfully authenticated with no password - SECURITY RISK!\n";
            }
            return 1;
        } else {
            print STDERR "Please enter your MySQL administrative login: ";
            my $name = <>;
            print STDERR "Please enter your MySQL administrative password: ";
            system("stty -echo");
            my $password = <>;
            system("stty echo");
            chomp($password);
            chomp($name);
            $mysqllogin = "-u $name";
            if (length($password) > 0) {
                $mysqllogin .= " -p'$password'";
            }
            $mysqllogin .= $remotestring;
            my $loginstatus = `mysqladmin ping $mysqllogin 2>&1`;
            if ($loginstatus =~ /mysqld is alive/) {
                print STDERR "\n";
                if (! length($password)) {
                    # Did this go well because of a .my.cnf file or is there no password set?
                    my $userpath = `ls -d ~`;
                    chomp($userpath);
                    unless ( -e "$userpath/.my.cnf" ) {
                        badprint "Successfully authenticated with no password - SECURITY RISK!\n";
                    }
                }
                return 1;
            } else {
                print "\n".$bad." Attempted to use login credentials, but they were invalid.\n";
                exit 0;
            }
            exit 0;
        }
    }
}

# Populates all of the variable and status hashes
my (%mystat,%myvar,$dummyselect);
sub get_all_vars {
    # We need to initiate at least one query so that our data is useable
    $dummyselect = `mysql $mysqllogin -Bse "SELECT VERSION();"`;
    my @mysqlvarlist = `mysql $mysqllogin -Bse "SHOW /*!50000 GLOBAL */ VARIABLES;"`;
    foreach my $line (@mysqlvarlist) {
        $line =~ /([a-zA-Z_]*)\s*(.*)/;
        $myvar{$1} = $2;
    }
    my @mysqlstatlist = `mysql $mysqllogin -Bse "SHOW /*!50000 GLOBAL */ STATUS;"`;
    foreach my $line (@mysqlstatlist) {
        $line =~ /([a-zA-Z_]*)\s*(.*)/;
        $mystat{$1} = $2;
    }
}

# Checks for updates to MySQLTuner
sub validate_tuner_version {
    print "\n-------- General Statistics --------------------------------------------------\n";
    if ($opt{checkversion} eq 0) {
        infoprint "Skipped version check for MySQLTuner script\n";
        return;
    }
    my $update;
    my $url = "http://mysqltuner.com/versioncheck.php?v=$tunerversion";
    if (-e "/usr/bin/curl") {
        $update = `/usr/bin/curl --connect-timeout 5 '$url' 2>/dev/null`;
        chomp($update);
    } elsif (-e "/usr/bin/wget") {
        $update = `/usr/bin/wget -e timestamping=off -T 5 -O - '$url' 2>/dev/null`;
        chomp($update);
    }
    if ($update eq 1) {
        badprint "There is a new version of MySQLTuner available\n";
    } elsif ($update eq 0) {
        goodprint "You have the latest version of MySQLTuner\n";
    } else {
        infoprint "Unable to check for the latest MySQLTuner version\n";
    }
}

# Checks for supported or EOL'ed MySQL versions
my ($mysqlvermajor,$mysqlverminor);
sub validate_mysql_version {
    ($mysqlvermajor,$mysqlverminor) = $myvar{'version'} =~ /(\d)\.(\d)/;
    if ($mysqlvermajor < 5) {
        badprint "Your MySQL version ".$myvar{'version'}." is EOL software!  Upgrade soon!\n";
    } elsif ($mysqlvermajor == 5) {
        goodprint "Currently running supported MySQL version ".$myvar{'version'}."\n";
    } else {
        badprint "Currently running unsupported MySQL version ".$myvar{'version'}."\n";
    }
}

# Checks for 32-bit boxes with more than 2GB of RAM
my ($arch);
sub check_architecture {
    if ($doremote eq 1) { return; }
    if (`uname` =~ /SunOS/ && `isainfo -b` =~ /64/) {
        $arch = 64;
        goodprint "Operating on 64-bit architecture\n";
    } elsif (`uname` !~ /SunOS/ && `uname -m` =~ /64/) {
        $arch = 64;
        goodprint "Operating on 64-bit architecture\n";
    } else {
        $arch = 32;
        if ($physical_memory > 2147483648) {
            badprint "Switch to 64-bit OS - MySQL cannot currently use all of your RAM\n";
        } else {
            goodprint "Operating on 32-bit architecture with less than 2GB RAM\n";
        }
    }
}

# Start up a ton of storage engine counts/statistics
my (%enginestats,%enginecount,$fragtables);
sub check_storage_engines {
    if ($opt{skipsize} eq 1) {
        print "\n-------- Storage Engine Statistics -------------------------------------------\n";
        infoprint "Skipped due to --skipsize option\n";
        return;
    }
    print "\n-------- Storage Engine Statistics -------------------------------------------\n";
    infoprint "Status: ";
    my $engines;
    $engines .= (defined $myvar{'have_archive'} && $myvar{'have_archive'} eq "YES")? greenwrap "+Archive " : redwrap "-Archive " ;
    $engines .= (defined $myvar{'have_bdb'} && $myvar{'have_bdb'} eq "YES")? greenwrap "+BDB " : redwrap "-BDB " ;
    $engines .= (defined $myvar{'have_federated'} && $myvar{'have_federated'} eq "YES")? greenwrap "+Federated " : redwrap "-Federated " ;
    $engines .= (defined $myvar{'have_innodb'} && $myvar{'have_innodb'} eq "YES")? greenwrap "+InnoDB " : redwrap "-InnoDB " ;
    $engines .= (defined $myvar{'have_isam'} && $myvar{'have_isam'} eq "YES")? greenwrap "+ISAM " : redwrap "-ISAM " ;
    $engines .= (defined $myvar{'have_ndbcluster'} && $myvar{'have_ndbcluster'} eq "YES")? greenwrap "+NDBCluster " : redwrap "-NDBCluster " ;   
    print "$engines\n";
    if ($mysqlvermajor >= 5) {
        # MySQL 5 servers can have table sizes calculated quickly from information schema
        my @templist = `mysql $mysqllogin -Bse "SELECT ENGINE,SUM(DATA_LENGTH),COUNT(ENGINE) FROM information_schema.TABLES WHERE TABLE_SCHEMA NOT IN ('information_schema','mysql') GROUP BY ENGINE ORDER BY ENGINE ASC;"`;
        foreach my $line (@templist) {
            my ($engine,$size,$count);
            ($engine,$size,$count) = $line =~ /([a-zA-Z_]*)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)/;
            if (!defined($size)) { next; }
            $enginestats{$engine} = $size;
            $enginecount{$engine} = $count;
        }
        $fragtables = `mysql $mysqllogin -Bse "SELECT COUNT(TABLE_NAME) FROM information_schema.TABLES WHERE TABLE_SCHEMA NOT IN ('information_schema','mysql') AND Data_free > 0"`;
        chomp($fragtables);
    } else {
        # MySQL < 5 servers take a lot of work to get table sizes
        my @tblist;
        # Now we build a database list, and loop through it to get storage engine stats for tables
        my @dblist = `mysql $mysqllogin -Bse "SHOW DATABASES"`;
        foreach my $db (@dblist) {
            chomp($db);
            if ($db eq "information_schema") { next; }
            if ($mysqlvermajor == 3 || ($mysqlvermajor == 4 && $mysqlverminor == 0)) {
                # MySQL 3.23/4.0 keeps Data_Length in the 6th column
                push (@tblist,`mysql $mysqllogin -Bse "SHOW TABLE STATUS FROM \\\`$db\\\`" | awk '{print \$2,\$6,\$9}'`);
            } else {
                # MySQL 4.1+ keeps Data_Length in the 7th column
                push (@tblist,`mysql $mysqllogin -Bse "SHOW TABLE STATUS FROM \\\`$db\\\`" | awk '{print \$2,\$7,\$10}'`);
            }
        }
        # Parse through the table list to generate storage engine counts/statistics
        $fragtables = 0;
        foreach my $line (@tblist) {
            chomp($line);
            $line =~ /([a-zA-Z_]*)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)/;
            my $engine = $1;
            my $size = $2;
            my $datafree = $3;
            if ($size !~ /^\d+$/) { $size = 0; }
            if (defined $enginestats{$engine}) {
                $enginestats{$engine} += $size;
                $enginecount{$engine} += 1;
            } else {
                $enginestats{$engine} = $size;
                $enginecount{$engine} = 1;
            }
            if ($datafree > 0) {
                $fragtables++;
            }
        }
    }
    while (my ($engine,$size) = each(%enginestats)) {
        infoprint "Data in $engine tables: ".hr_bytes_rnd($size)." (Tables: ".$enginecount{$engine}.")"."\n";
    }
    # If the storage engine isn't being used, recommend it to be disabled
    if (!defined $enginestats{'InnoDB'} && defined $myvar{'have_innodb'} && $myvar{'have_innodb'} eq "YES") {
        badprint "InnoDB is enabled but isn't being used\n";
        push(@generalrec,"Add skip-innodb to MySQL configuration to disable InnoDB");
    }
    if (!defined $enginestats{'BerkeleyDB'} && defined $myvar{'have_bdb'} && $myvar{'have_bdb'} eq "YES") {
        badprint "BDB is enabled but isn't being used\n";
        push(@generalrec,"Add skip-bdb to MySQL configuration to disable BDB");
    }
    if (!defined $enginestats{'ISAM'} && defined $myvar{'have_isam'} && $myvar{'have_isam'} eq "YES") {
        badprint "ISAM is enabled but isn't being used\n";
        push(@generalrec,"Add skip-isam to MySQL configuration to disable ISAM (MySQL > 4.1.0)");
    }
    # Fragmented tables
    if ($fragtables > 0) {
        badprint "Total fragmented tables: $fragtables\n";
        push(@generalrec,"Run OPTIMIZE TABLE to defragment tables for better performance");
    } else {
        goodprint "Total fragmented tables: $fragtables\n";
    }
}

my %mycalc;
sub calculations {
    if ($mystat{'Questions'} < 1) {
        badprint "Your server has not answered any queries - cannot continue...";
        exit 0;
    }
    # Per-thread memory
    if ($mysqlvermajor > 3) {
        $mycalc{'per_thread_buffers'} = $myvar{'read_buffer_size'} + $myvar{'read_rnd_buffer_size'} + $myvar{'sort_buffer_size'} + $myvar{'thread_stack'} + $myvar{'join_buffer_size'};
    } else {
        $mycalc{'per_thread_buffers'} = $myvar{'record_buffer'} + $myvar{'record_rnd_buffer'} + $myvar{'sort_buffer'} + $myvar{'thread_stack'} + $myvar{'join_buffer_size'};
    }
    $mycalc{'total_per_thread_buffers'} = $mycalc{'per_thread_buffers'} * $myvar{'max_connections'};
    $mycalc{'max_total_per_thread_buffers'} = $mycalc{'per_thread_buffers'} * $mystat{'Max_used_connections'};

    # Server-wide memory
    $mycalc{'max_tmp_table_size'} = ($myvar{'tmp_table_size'} > $myvar{'max_heap_table_size'}) ? $myvar{'max_heap_table_size'} : $myvar{'tmp_table_size'} ;
    $mycalc{'server_buffers'} = $myvar{'key_buffer_size'} + $mycalc{'max_tmp_table_size'};
    $mycalc{'server_buffers'} += (defined $myvar{'innodb_buffer_pool_size'}) ? $myvar{'innodb_buffer_pool_size'} : 0 ;
    $mycalc{'server_buffers'} += (defined $myvar{'innodb_additional_mem_pool_size'}) ? $myvar{'innodb_additional_mem_pool_size'} : 0 ;
    $mycalc{'server_buffers'} += (defined $myvar{'innodb_log_buffer_size'}) ? $myvar{'innodb_log_buffer_size'} : 0 ;
    $mycalc{'server_buffers'} += (defined $myvar{'query_cache_size'}) ? $myvar{'query_cache_size'} : 0 ;

    # Global memory
    $mycalc{'max_used_memory'} = $mycalc{'server_buffers'} + $mycalc{"max_total_per_thread_buffers"};
    $mycalc{'total_possible_used_memory'} = $mycalc{'server_buffers'} + $mycalc{'total_per_thread_buffers'};
    $mycalc{'pct_physical_memory'} = int(($mycalc{'total_possible_used_memory'} * 100) / $physical_memory);

    # Slow queries
    $mycalc{'pct_slow_queries'} = int(($mystat{'Slow_queries'}/$mystat{'Questions'}) * 100);
   
    # Connections
    $mycalc{'pct_connections_used'} = int(($mystat{'Max_used_connections'}/$myvar{'max_connections'}) * 100);
    $mycalc{'pct_connections_used'} = ($mycalc{'pct_connections_used'} > 100) ? 100 : $mycalc{'pct_connections_used'} ;
   
    # Key buffers
    if ($mysqlvermajor > 3 && !($mysqlvermajor == 4 && $mysqlverminor == 0)) {
        $mycalc{'pct_key_buffer_used'} = sprintf("%.1f",(1 - (($mystat{'Key_blocks_unused'} * $myvar{'key_cache_block_size'}) / $myvar{'key_buffer_size'})) * 100);
    }
    if ($mystat{'Key_read_requests'} > 0) {
        $mycalc{'pct_keys_from_mem'} = sprintf("%.1f",(100 - (($mystat{'Key_reads'} / $mystat{'Key_read_requests'}) * 100)));
    }
    if ($doremote eq 0 and $mysqlvermajor < 5) {
        $mycalc{'total_myisam_indexes'} = `find $myvar{'datadir'} -name '*.MYI' 2>&1 | xargs du -L $duflags '{}' 2>&1 | awk '{ s += \$1 } END { printf (\"%d\",s) }'`;
    } elsif ($mysqlvermajor >= 5) {
        $mycalc{'total_myisam_indexes'} = `mysql $mysqllogin -Bse "SELECT IFNULL(SUM(INDEX_LENGTH),0) FROM information_schema.TABLES WHERE TABLE_SCHEMA NOT IN ('information_schema');"`;
    }
    if (defined $mycalc{'total_myisam_indexes'} and $mycalc{'total_myisam_indexes'} =~ /^0\n$/) {
        $mycalc{'total_myisam_indexes'} = "fail";
    } elsif (defined $mycalc{'total_myisam_indexes'}) {
        chomp($mycalc{'total_myisam_indexes'});
    }
   
    # Query cache
    if ($mysqlvermajor > 3) {
        $mycalc{'query_cache_efficiency'} = sprintf("%.1f",($mystat{'Qcache_hits'} / ($mystat{'Com_select'} + $mystat{'Qcache_hits'})) * 100);
        if ($myvar{'query_cache_size'}) {
            $mycalc{'pct_query_cache_used'} = sprintf("%.1f",100 - ($mystat{'Qcache_free_memory'} / $myvar{'query_cache_size'}) * 100);
        }
    if ($mystat{'Qcache_lowmem_prunes'} == 0) {
            $mycalc{'query_cache_prunes_per_day'} = 0;
        } else {
            $mycalc{'query_cache_prunes_per_day'} = int($mystat{'Qcache_lowmem_prunes'} / ($mystat{'Uptime'}/86400));
        }
    }
   
    # Sorting
    $mycalc{'total_sorts'} = $mystat{'Sort_scan'} + $mystat{'Sort_range'};
    if ($mycalc{'total_sorts'} > 0) {
        $mycalc{'pct_temp_sort_table'} = int(($mystat{'Sort_merge_passes'} / $mycalc{'total_sorts'}) * 100);
    }
   
    # Joins
    $mycalc{'joins_without_indexes'} = $mystat{'Select_range_check'} + $mystat{'Select_full_join'};
    $mycalc{'joins_without_indexes_per_day'} = int($mycalc{'joins_without_indexes'} / ($mystat{'Uptime'}/86400));
   
    # Temporary tables
    if ($mystat{'Created_tmp_tables'} > 0) {
        if ($mystat{'Created_tmp_disk_tables'} > 0) {
            $mycalc{'pct_temp_disk'} = int(($mystat{'Created_tmp_disk_tables'} / ($mystat{'Created_tmp_tables'} + $mystat{'Created_tmp_disk_tables'})) * 100);
        } else {
            $mycalc{'pct_temp_disk'} = 0;
        }
    }
   
    # Table cache
    if ($mystat{'Opened_tables'} > 0) {
        $mycalc{'table_cache_hit_rate'} = int($mystat{'Open_tables'}*100/$mystat{'Opened_tables'});
    } else {
        $mycalc{'table_cache_hit_rate'} = 100;
    }
   
    # Open files
    if ($myvar{'open_files_limit'} > 0) {
        $mycalc{'pct_files_open'} = int($mystat{'Open_files'}*100/$myvar{'open_files_limit'});
    }
   
    # Table locks
    if ($mystat{'Table_locks_immediate'} > 0) {
        if ($mystat{'Table_locks_waited'} == 0) {
            $mycalc{'pct_table_locks_immediate'} = 100;
        } else {
            $mycalc{'pct_table_locks_immediate'} = int($mystat{'Table_locks_immediate'}*100/($mystat{'Table_locks_waited'} + $mystat{'Table_locks_immediate'}));
        }
    }
   
    # Thread cache
    $mycalc{'thread_cache_hit_rate'} = int(100 - (($mystat{'Threads_created'} / $mystat{'Connections'}) * 100));

    # Other
    if ($mystat{'Connections'} > 0) {
        $mycalc{'pct_aborted_connections'} = int(($mystat{'Aborted_connects'}/$mystat{'Connections'}) * 100);
    }
    if ($mystat{'Questions'} > 0) {
        $mycalc{'total_reads'} = $mystat{'Com_select'};
        $mycalc{'total_writes'} = $mystat{'Com_delete'} + $mystat{'Com_insert'} + $mystat{'Com_update'} + $mystat{'Com_replace'};
        if ($mycalc{'total_reads'} == 0) {
            $mycalc{'pct_reads'} = 0;
            $mycalc{'pct_writes'} = 100;
        } else {
            $mycalc{'pct_reads'} = int(($mycalc{'total_reads'}/($mycalc{'total_reads'}+$mycalc{'total_writes'})) * 100);
            $mycalc{'pct_writes'} = 100-$mycalc{'pct_reads'};
        }
    }

    # InnoDB
    if ($myvar{'have_innodb'} eq "YES") {
        $mycalc{'innodb_log_size_pct'} = ($myvar{'innodb_log_file_size'} * 100 / $myvar{'innodb_buffer_pool_size'});
    }
}

sub mysql_stats {
    print "\n-------- Performance Metrics -------------------------------------------------\n";
    # Show uptime, queries per second, connections, traffic stats
    my $qps;
    if ($mystat{'Uptime'} > 0) { $qps = sprintf("%.3f",$mystat{'Questions'}/$mystat{'Uptime'}); }
    if ($mystat{'Uptime'} < 86400) { push(@generalrec,"MySQL started within last 24 hours - recommendations may be inaccurate"); }
    infoprint "Up for: ".pretty_uptime($mystat{'Uptime'})." (".hr_num($mystat{'Questions'}).
        " q [".hr_num($qps)." qps], ".hr_num($mystat{'Connections'})." conn,".
        " TX: ".hr_num($mystat{'Bytes_sent'}).", RX: ".hr_num($mystat{'Bytes_received'}).")\n";
    infoprint "Reads / Writes: ".$mycalc{'pct_reads'}."% / ".$mycalc{'pct_writes'}."%\n";

    # Memory usage
    infoprint "Total buffers: ".hr_bytes($mycalc{'server_buffers'})." global + ".hr_bytes($mycalc{'per_thread_buffers'})." per thread ($myvar{'max_connections'} max threads)\n";
    if ($mycalc{'total_possible_used_memory'} > 2*1024*1024*1024 && $arch eq 32) {
        badprint "Allocating > 2GB RAM on 32-bit systems can cause system instability\n";
        badprint "Maximum possible memory usage: ".hr_bytes($mycalc{'total_possible_used_memory'})." ($mycalc{'pct_physical_memory'}% of installed RAM)\n";
    } elsif ($mycalc{'pct_physical_memory'} > 85) {
        badprint "Maximum possible memory usage: ".hr_bytes($mycalc{'total_possible_used_memory'})." ($mycalc{'pct_physical_memory'}% of installed RAM)\n";
        push(@generalrec,"Reduce your overall MySQL memory footprint for system stability");
    } else {
        goodprint "Maximum possible memory usage: ".hr_bytes($mycalc{'total_possible_used_memory'})." ($mycalc{'pct_physical_memory'}% of installed RAM)\n";
    }
   
    # Slow queries
    if ($mycalc{'pct_slow_queries'} > 5) {
        badprint "Slow queries: $mycalc{'pct_slow_queries'}% (".hr_num($mystat{'Slow_queries'})."/".hr_num($mystat{'Questions'}).")\n";
    } else {
        goodprint "Slow queries: $mycalc{'pct_slow_queries'}% (".hr_num($mystat{'Slow_queries'})."/".hr_num($mystat{'Questions'}).")\n";
    }
    if ($myvar{'long_query_time'} > 10) { push(@adjvars,"long_query_time (<= 10)"); }
    if (defined($myvar{'log_slow_queries'})) {
        if ($myvar{'log_slow_queries'} eq "OFF") { push(@generalrec,"Enable the slow query log to troubleshoot bad queries"); }
    }
   
    # Connections
    if ($mycalc{'pct_connections_used'} > 85) {
        badprint "Highest connection usage: $mycalc{'pct_connections_used'}%  ($mystat{'Max_used_connections'}/$myvar{'max_connections'})\n";
        push(@adjvars,"max_connections (> ".$myvar{'max_connections'}.")");
        push(@adjvars,"wait_timeout (< ".$myvar{'wait_timeout'}.")","interactive_timeout (< ".$myvar{'interactive_timeout'}.")");
        push(@generalrec,"Reduce or eliminate persistent connections to reduce connection usage")
    } else {
        goodprint "Highest usage of available connections: $mycalc{'pct_connections_used'}% ($mystat{'Max_used_connections'}/$myvar{'max_connections'})\n";
    }
   
    # Key buffer
    if (!defined($mycalc{'total_myisam_indexes'}) and $doremote eq 1) {
        push(@generalrec,"Unable to calculate MyISAM indexes on remote MySQL server < 5.0.0");
    } elsif ($mycalc{'total_myisam_indexes'} =~ /^fail$/) {
        badprint "Cannot calculate MyISAM index size - re-run script as root user\n";
    } elsif ($mycalc{'total_myisam_indexes'} == "0") {
        badprint "None of your MyISAM tables are indexed - add indexes immediately\n";
    } else {
        if ($myvar{'key_buffer_size'} < $mycalc{'total_myisam_indexes'} && $mycalc{'pct_keys_from_mem'} < 95) {
            badprint "Key buffer size / total MyISAM indexes: ".hr_bytes($myvar{'key_buffer_size'})."/".hr_bytes($mycalc{'total_myisam_indexes'})."\n";
            push(@adjvars,"key_buffer_size (> ".hr_bytes($mycalc{'total_myisam_indexes'}).")");
        } else {
            goodprint "Key buffer size / total MyISAM indexes: ".hr_bytes($myvar{'key_buffer_size'})."/".hr_bytes($mycalc{'total_myisam_indexes'})."\n";
        }
        if ($mystat{'Key_read_requests'} > 0) {
            if ($mycalc{'pct_keys_from_mem'} < 95) {
                badprint "Key buffer hit rate: $mycalc{'pct_keys_from_mem'}% (".hr_num($mystat{'Key_read_requests'})." cached / ".hr_num($mystat{'Key_reads'})." reads)\n";
            } else {
                goodprint "Key buffer hit rate: $mycalc{'pct_keys_from_mem'}% (".hr_num($mystat{'Key_read_requests'})." cached / ".hr_num($mystat{'Key_reads'})." reads)\n";
            }
        } else {
            # For the sake of space, we will be quiet here
            # No queries have run that would use keys
        }
    }
   
    # Query cache
    if ($mysqlvermajor < 4) {
        # For the sake of space, we will be quiet here
        # MySQL versions < 4.01 don't support query caching
        push(@generalrec,"Upgrade MySQL to version 4+ to utilize query caching");
    } elsif ($myvar{'query_cache_size'} < 1) {
        badprint "Query cache is disabled\n";
        push(@adjvars,"query_cache_size (>= 8M)");
    } elsif ($mystat{'Com_select'} == 0) {
        badprint "Query cache cannot be analyzed - no SELECT statements executed\n";
    } else {
        if ($mycalc{'query_cache_efficiency'} < 20) {
            badprint "Query cache efficiency: $mycalc{'query_cache_efficiency'}% (".hr_num($mystat{'Qcache_hits'})." cached / ".hr_num($mystat{'Qcache_hits'}+$mystat{'Com_select'})." selects)\n";
            push(@adjvars,"query_cache_limit (> ".hr_bytes_rnd($myvar{'query_cache_limit'}).", or use smaller result sets)");
        } else {
            goodprint "Query cache efficiency: $mycalc{'query_cache_efficiency'}% (".hr_num($mystat{'Qcache_hits'})." cached / ".hr_num($mystat{'Qcache_hits'}+$mystat{'Com_select'})." selects)\n";
        }
        if ($mycalc{'query_cache_prunes_per_day'} > 98) {
            badprint "Query cache prunes per day: $mycalc{'query_cache_prunes_per_day'}\n";
            push(@adjvars,"query_cache_size (> ".hr_bytes_rnd($myvar{'query_cache_size'}).")")
        } else {
            goodprint "Query cache prunes per day: $mycalc{'query_cache_prunes_per_day'}\n";
        }
    }
   
    # Sorting
    if ($mycalc{'total_sorts'} == 0) {
        # For the sake of space, we will be quiet here
        # No sorts have run yet
    } elsif ($mycalc{'pct_temp_sort_table'} > 10) {
        badprint "Sorts requiring temporary tables: $mycalc{'pct_temp_sort_table'}% (".hr_num($mystat{'Sort_merge_passes'})." temp sorts / ".hr_num($mycalc{'total_sorts'})." sorts)\n";
        push(@adjvars,"sort_buffer_size (> ".hr_bytes_rnd($myvar{'sort_buffer_size'}).")");
        push(@adjvars,"read_rnd_buffer_size (> ".hr_bytes_rnd($myvar{'read_rnd_buffer_size'}).")");
    } else {
        goodprint "Sorts requiring temporary tables: $mycalc{'pct_temp_sort_table'}% (".hr_num($mystat{'Sort_merge_passes'})." temp sorts / ".hr_num($mycalc{'total_sorts'})." sorts)\n";
    }
   
    # Joins
    if ($mycalc{'joins_without_indexes_per_day'} > 250) {
        badprint "Joins performed without indexes: $mycalc{'joins_without_indexes'}\n";
        push(@adjvars,"join_buffer_size (> ".hr_bytes($myvar{'join_buffer_size'}).", or always use indexes with joins)");
        push(@generalrec,"Adjust your join queries to always utilize indexes");
    } else {
        # For the sake of space, we will be quiet here
        # No joins have run without indexes
    }
   
    # Temporary tables
    if ($mystat{'Created_tmp_tables'} > 0) {
        if ($mycalc{'pct_temp_disk'} > 25 && $mycalc{'max_tmp_table_size'} < 256*1024*1024) {
            badprint "Temporary tables created on disk: $mycalc{'pct_temp_disk'}% (".hr_num($mystat{'Created_tmp_disk_tables'})." on disk / ".hr_num($mystat{'Created_tmp_disk_tables'} + $mystat{'Created_tmp_tables'})." total)\n";
            push(@adjvars,"tmp_table_size (> ".hr_bytes_rnd($myvar{'tmp_table_size'}).")");
            push(@adjvars,"max_heap_table_size (> ".hr_bytes_rnd($myvar{'max_heap_table_size'}).")");
            push(@generalrec,"When making adjustments, make tmp_table_size/max_heap_table_size equal");
            push(@generalrec,"Reduce your SELECT DISTINCT queries without LIMIT clauses");
        } elsif ($mycalc{'pct_temp_disk'} > 25 && $mycalc{'max_tmp_table_size'} >= 256) {
            badprint "Temporary tables created on disk: $mycalc{'pct_temp_disk'}% (".hr_num($mystat{'Created_tmp_disk_tables'})." on disk / ".hr_num($mystat{'Created_tmp_disk_tables'} + $mystat{'Created_tmp_tables'})." total)\n";
            push(@generalrec,"Temporary table size is already large - reduce result set size");
            push(@generalrec,"Reduce your SELECT DISTINCT queries without LIMIT clauses");
        } else {
            goodprint "Temporary tables created on disk: $mycalc{'pct_temp_disk'}% (".hr_num($mystat{'Created_tmp_disk_tables'})." on disk / ".hr_num($mystat{'Created_tmp_disk_tables'} + $mystat{'Created_tmp_tables'})." total)\n";
        }
    } else {
        # For the sake of space, we will be quiet here
        # No temporary tables have been created
    }

    # Thread cache
    if ($myvar{'thread_cache_size'} eq 0) {
        badprint "Thread cache is disabled\n";
        push(@generalrec,"Set thread_cache_size to 4 as a starting value");
        push(@adjvars,"thread_cache_size (start at 4)");
    } else {
        if ($mycalc{'thread_cache_hit_rate'} <= 50) {
            badprint "Thread cache hit rate: $mycalc{'thread_cache_hit_rate'}% (".hr_num($mystat{'Threads_created'})." created / ".hr_num($mystat{'Connections'})." connections)\n";
            push(@adjvars,"thread_cache_size (> $myvar{'thread_cache_size'})");
        } else {
            goodprint "Thread cache hit rate: $mycalc{'thread_cache_hit_rate'}% (".hr_num($mystat{'Threads_created'})." created / ".hr_num($mystat{'Connections'})." connections)\n";
        }
    }

    # Table cache
    if ($mystat{'Open_tables'} > 0) {
        if ($mycalc{'table_cache_hit_rate'} < 20) {
            badprint "Table cache hit rate: $mycalc{'table_cache_hit_rate'}% (".hr_num($mystat{'Open_tables'})." open / ".hr_num($mystat{'Opened_tables'})." opened)\n";
            if ($mysqlvermajor eq 6 || ($mysqlvermajor eq 5 && $mysqlverminor ge 1)) {
                push(@adjvars,"table_cache (> ".$myvar{'table_open_cache'}.")");
            } else {
                push(@adjvars,"table_cache (> ".$myvar{'table_cache'}.")");
            }
            push(@generalrec,"Increase table_cache gradually to avoid file descriptor limits");
        } else {
            goodprint "Table cache hit rate: $mycalc{'table_cache_hit_rate'}% (".hr_num($mystat{'Open_tables'})." open / ".hr_num($mystat{'Opened_tables'})." opened)\n";
        }
    }

    # Open files
    if (defined $mycalc{'pct_files_open'}) {
        if ($mycalc{'pct_files_open'} > 85) {
            badprint "Open file limit used: $mycalc{'pct_files_open'}% (".hr_num($mystat{'Open_files'})."/".hr_num($myvar{'open_files_limit'}).")\n";
            push(@adjvars,"open_files_limit (> ".$myvar{'open_files_limit'}.")");
        } else {
            goodprint "Open file limit used: $mycalc{'pct_files_open'}% (".hr_num($mystat{'Open_files'})."/".hr_num($myvar{'open_files_limit'}).")\n";
        }
    }

    # Table locks
    if (defined $mycalc{'pct_table_locks_immediate'}) {
        if ($mycalc{'pct_table_locks_immediate'} < 95) {
            badprint "Table locks acquired immediately: $mycalc{'pct_table_locks_immediate'}%\n";
            push(@generalrec,"Optimize queries and/or use InnoDB to reduce lock wait");
        } else {
            goodprint "Table locks acquired immediately: $mycalc{'pct_table_locks_immediate'}% (".hr_num($mystat{'Table_locks_immediate'})." immediate / ".hr_num($mystat{'Table_locks_waited'}+$mystat{'Table_locks_immediate'})." locks)\n";
        }
    }

    # Performance options
    if ($mysqlvermajor == 3 || ($mysqlvermajor == 4 && $mysqlverminor == 0)) {
        push(@generalrec,"Upgrade to MySQL 4.1+ to use concurrent MyISAM inserts");
    } elsif ($myvar{'concurrent_insert'} eq "OFF") {
        push(@generalrec,"Enable concurrent_insert by setting it to 'ON'");
    } elsif ($myvar{'concurrent_insert'} eq 0) {
        push(@generalrec,"Enable concurrent_insert by setting it to 1");
    }
    if ($mycalc{'pct_aborted_connections'} > 5) {
        badprint "Connections aborted: ".$mycalc{'pct_aborted_connections'}."%\n";
        push(@generalrec,"Your applications are not closing MySQL connections properly");
    }
   
    # InnoDB
    if (defined $myvar{'have_innodb'} && $myvar{'have_innodb'} eq "YES" && defined $enginestats{'InnoDB'}) {
        if ($myvar{'innodb_buffer_pool_size'} > $enginestats{'InnoDB'}) {
            goodprint "InnoDB data size / buffer pool: ".hr_bytes($enginestats{'InnoDB'})."/".hr_bytes($myvar{'innodb_buffer_pool_size'})."\n";
        } else {
            badprint "InnoDB data size / buffer pool: ".hr_bytes($enginestats{'InnoDB'})."/".hr_bytes($myvar{'innodb_buffer_pool_size'})."\n";
            push(@adjvars,"innodb_buffer_pool_size (>= ".hr_bytes_rnd($enginestats{'InnoDB'}).")");
        }
    }
}

# Take the two recommendation arrays and display them at the end of the output
sub make_recommendations {
    print "\n-------- Recommendations -----------------------------------------------------\n";
    if (@generalrec > 0) {
        print "General recommendations:\n";
        foreach (@generalrec) { print "    ".$_."\n"; }
    }
    if (@adjvars > 0) {
        print "Variables to adjust:\n";
        if ($mycalc{'pct_physical_memory'} > 90) {
            print "  *** MySQL's maximum memory usage is dangerously high ***\n".
                  "  *** Add RAM before increasing MySQL buffer variables ***\n";
        }
        foreach (@adjvars) { print "    ".$_."\n"; }
    }
    if (@generalrec == 0 && @adjvars ==0) {
        print "No additional performance recommendations are available.\n"
    }
    print "\n";
}

# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
# BEGIN 'MAIN'
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
print    "\n >>  MySQLTuner $tunerversion - Major Hayden <major\@mhtx.net>\n".
        " >>  Bug reports, feature requests, and downloads at http://mysqltuner.com/\n".
        " >>  Run with '--help' for additional options and output filtering\n";
mysql_setup;                    # Gotta login first
os_setup;                        # Set up some OS variables
get_all_vars;                    # Toss variables/status into hashes
validate_tuner_version;            # Check current MySQLTuner version
validate_mysql_version;            # Check current MySQL version
check_architecture;                # Suggest 64-bit upgrade
check_storage_engines;            # Show enabled storage engines
calculations;                    # Calculate everything we need
mysql_stats;                    # Print the server stats
make_recommendations;            # Make recommendations based on stats
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
# END 'MAIN'
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

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